On April 9th, 2014, CMS publicly released data on the amount Medicare paid individual physicians in 2012. The data can be broken down by CPT code so the public can see exactly how many of each procedure a physician billed Medicare for and what they billed and were paid for those procedures. The data does not contain any reference to a providers cost for performing those procedures or the quality of care that was delivered. However, now that the information is in the public domain and easy to access, practices and their providers that perform services to Medicare patients should expect to get questions about this data.
Note that the data is in very large Excel files and will take some time to download. The files are broken by last name. Here is a alternate link that is a searchable database.